EXTRA OFF for YOU with 2TREES Charity
The Ultimate Guide to Montessori Principles

The Ultimate Guide to Montessori Principles

Montessori principles form the fundamental tenets that underpin the Montessori method of education. They encompass all aspects, from establishing a prepared environment to structuring the curriculum, where, for instance, new concepts are introduced from simple to complex, and new topics are explored after previous ones are well understood. Montessori principles also address the specifics of practical learning, fostering independence and self-discipline, considering critical factors like the correlation between physical and mental development, respect for the environment, social development, and more.

All these principles aim to create a safe and inspiring environment where children can grow, equipped from an early age to apply their knowledge and skills practically, learn to listen to themselves, their needs, feelings, and interests, and follow them. It lays the foundation for shaping a confident, harmonious, multifaceted personality. A child may not necessarily become a Google CEO or found a platform like Amazon (though many such individuals were also Montessori-educated). However, the child will grow to be self-assured and content, knowing what they want and how to achieve it. That's what matters most.

Prepared Environment

Before delving into the 5 pillars of Montessori, creating a prepared home environment is essential. This process involves organizing a space to facilitate independent exploration and learning. Such a space is orderly, aesthetically pleasing, and carefully arranged to encourage self-directed activity. It includes low open shelves for books, toys, and educational materials, wardrobes, and cabinets at the child's height for easy access, allowing them to tidy up their clothes or choose their attire independently.

Equally important is to have a small working area where the child can sit, read, or play. The bed in the Montessori interior is also unique: it has a low height, enabling the child to climb in and out independently. Additionally, the prepared environment should be spacious and safe, even when leaving the child unattended for a while. There should be nothing superfluous in the room to maintain order, facilitate movement, and engage in various tasks attentively without distractions.

Maria Montessori emphasizes the importance of the prepared environment in practically all her works. In fact, the 5 principles of the Montessori method evolved through the process of Montessori redesigning educational spaces in the first school where she began working with children with special needs.

Montessori Commandments for Parents and Educators

If we distill the principles of the Montessori method from Maria Montessori's works, lectures, and books, they would sound like this:

  1. Children learn through interaction with their surroundings. They have absorbent minds, soaking up information like sponges. Create an inspiring, engaging, and safe environment around the child.
  2. When you criticize, the child learns to condemn; when you laugh at them, they fear; when you scold and punish, a sense of guilt embeds deeply. But when you praise a child for specific achievements and notice their strengths, they learn to recognize the good. Similarly, when you are honest, the child learns fairness. When you establish a safe environment, the child learns to trust and be open to new ideas. Encouragement breeds confidence.
  3. Do not criticize the child in their presence or absence. Criticism breeds mistrust in parents and educators, the very people the child relies on in the early years and expects support from.
  4. Look at the child and try to see something good every time. Emphasize this, and automatically, the bad diminishes. To achieve this, do not leave any room for negativity.
  5. Allow room for mistakes. Everyone makes mistakes. Learning and progress are impossible without them. Correct the child if they misuse something and it poses a danger. Otherwise, do not turn every mistake into a tragedy: the child will grow up unafraid of calculated risks, new ventures, and experiments. Forgive the child's mistakes, and they will learn to be patient.

Additionally, complement these 5 principles of Montessori with an important rule: offer your children the best you have. Be an example – it's the best way to teach a child, as they are inclined to follow you.

"Help me to do it myself!"

At home, parents can foster independence by involving children in daily tasks such as dressing, preparing simple meals, and tidying up their belongings. It is important to create a safe environment where little ones can explore freely without constant supervision: remove dangerous appliances, wires, and other items from the child's reach.

While granting autonomy to kids, it is equally significant to establish clear boundaries and expectations. Children can freely choose activities, work at their own pace, and explore their interests. However, this freedom is accompanied by respectful behavior, cooperation, and instructions on responsibility. Through this balance of freedom and structure, children develop self-discipline, self-regulation, and respect for themselves and others.

The Process Is No Less Important Than the Outcome

It means that in learning, playing, or performing various exercises, the child should derive pleasure from experiments, discoveries, and explorations, not just the results. It helps foster a love for the learning process, better focus on it and promotes problem-solving skills and creativity. Shifting the focus of attention transforms the entire approach to learning. The main goal is not just to sit through a certain number of hours and listen to the teacher but to fully immerse oneself in an engaging activity and take in all the best it offers.

A Kid's Talents and Abilities Are Clues to Where and How to Proceed Next

In traditional schooling, if a child shows better aptitude for the exact sciences, they also engage in humanities to ensure good grades in all subjects. The essence of Montessori education is that when kids, for example, are inclined towards exact sciences, they are allowed to explore them more deeply and intensively. The internal motivation system and natural aspirations will help achieve success in these disciplines. Montessori emphasized that each child has unique interests, abilities, and learning styles. Instead of imposing a fixed curriculum, Montessori teachers observe kids and adapt activities according to their individual needs and interests. This approach fosters a deep sense of engagement and internal motivation as children explore topics that genuinely capture their interest and enthusiasm.

Montessori teachers carefully observe students as they engage in activities, noting their interests, strengths, and areas of development. This ongoing observation informs lesson planning and allows teachers to adapt their approach to the evolving needs of each child. Reflection also plays a crucial role in Montessori teaching practice, as educators constantly reflect on their interactions with students, the effectiveness of teaching materials, and the overall classroom environment. This commitment to reflection ensures that Montessori classrooms remain dynamic, responsive, and conducive learning environments.

Practical Experience Enhances Better Understanding

Montessori classrooms emphasize practical experience as the primary method of learning. Through tactile exploration and performing practical tasks, children develop a concrete understanding of abstract concepts such as mathematics, language, and science. For example, it can be challenging for a little one to understand what sounds are and how they are conveyed in writing, but by using a sensory alphabet during lessons, kids find the connection between sounds and letters. Another example is that children can play with various materials, instruments, and shapes and thus grasp concepts of comparison (more and less), volume, quantity, and so on.

Joint Activities in Mixed-Age Groups Foster Better Child Socialization

In Montessori classrooms, students of different ages learn together in the same environment. This system allows children to understand others better, help younger ones, be inspired by older ones, and emulate their example. Mixed-age groups cultivate a sense of community, cooperation, and empathy in students.

Physical Activity Indoors and Outdoors Also Contributes to Holistic Child Development

Indoor and outdoor physical games and activities include exercises that promote gross motor skills, coordination, balance, and spatial perception. In a Montessori children's room, it is advisable to use climbing frames, balance beams, crawling tunnels, and obstacle courses. It creates active play and exploration opportunities, positively impacting cognitive development, not just muscle strengthening, flexibility, and well-being.

In turn, outdoor activities in Montessori settings allow children to interact with nature, participate in open-ended exploration, and experience the natural world firsthand. Outdoor spaces can include gardens, nature trails, sandboxes, water play areas, and open spaces for running, jumping, and creative play. Outdoor games foster curiosity, teach juniors to care for nature and the environment, instill a sense of mindfulness towards everything around them, and promote harmonious personality development.


Education following Montessori principles differs from traditional schooling but offers many advantages. Special attention in this educational system is given to independence, the organization of an environment conducive to free choice and activity, and the use of special materials for independent learning. Montessori education promotes the development of the child as a holistic individual, providing opportunities for free choice, exploration, and self-expression.

Following Montessori principles, a child grows up inquisitive and motivated, ready for any practical tasks, and capable of handling most of them independently. However, while focusing on overall development and independence, Montessori education also allows for achieving excellent results in language, mathematics, natural sciences, and other subjects. This system aims to identify a child's strengths and build a curriculum at their own pace.

Considering the above mentioned principles, Montessori education provides a holistic approach that promotes intellectual, social, emotional, and physical development.

Older Post
Newer Post


What are the main principles of the Montessori approach that should be followed?

Open tab

The main principles of the Montessori methodology include self-directed learning, development through practical activities, and cooperation. It is important to allow the kid to choose their tasks, fostering their individual development and self-expression.

What is a prepared environment?

Open tab

A prepared environment in the Montessori system is a specially organized learning environment where each object and material is carefully selected to stimulate children's interest and learning. It includes ergonomic furniture designed for children's height and access to developmental toys and materials.

For which kids is the Montessori method best suited?

Open tab

Montessori education is particularly suitable for children who demonstrate individuality, show interest in independent learning, and have a desire for practical activities. This approach fosters independence, creativity, and internal motivation.